Preprint / Version 1

Evaluation of a Multimodal Approach to Chatbots


  • Julian Weng


chatbots, multi-modal approach, human-based, machine-based


Chatbots, software applications that can conduct conversations, often fall into one of two categories: “FAQ” style chatbots that can answer domain-specific questions and sometimes refer the user to a human operator, and “Conversational” chatbots that aim to be more general assistants or even just virtual companions. This paper will investigate the usage of a multi-modal approach that combines these two functions. It will evaluate two different methods, one human-based and one machine-based, for comparing the efficacy of this approach, and present final findings and their implications. This approach was found to perform better in domain-specific tasks with mixed results in conversational and general-knowledge tasks.

References or Bibliography

Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2020, May 7). Turing test. Encyclopedia Britannica.

Debecker, A. (2017, August 11). Chatbot ELIZA: Deconstructing Your Friendly Therapist. Ubisend. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Facebook AI. (2020, April 29). A state-of-the-art open source chatbot. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Garcia brustenga, G., Fuertes alpiste, M., & Molas castells, N. (2018, September 1). Briefing paper: Chatbots in education. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC).

Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children (Early Education for All, Comp.). Brookes Publishing.

Rasa. (2021a). [Features of Rasa]. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Rasa. (2021b, July 12). Introduction to Rasa Action Servers. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Rasa. (2021c, July 12). Stories. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Sedoc, J. (2018, September 21). ChatEval (A Tool for Evaluating Chatbots). Github. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Stephanie. (2020, May 8). Chatbot FAQs – The Most Common Chatbot Questions Answered! Onlim.

Stillman, J. (2018, October 3). NEWSLETTERS SUBSCRIBE STARTUP LIFE A 70-Year Study of 70,000 Children Says This Is the Secret to Raising Successful Kids. Inc. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Streamlit. (2021). [Streamlit home page]. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Zhang, Y., Sun, S., Galley, M., Chen, Y., Brockett, C., Gao, X., Gao, J., Liu, J., & Dolan, W. (2020). DIALOGPT : Large-Scale Generative Pre-training for Conversational Response Generation. ACL.